Glossary


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Adapter
Adapters are pieces of software that are used in the integration of component-based applications and serve as a wrapper that mediates access to an application that was not developed with integration in mind.

Applet
An applet is a small program that can be sent along with a Web page to a user. Java applets can perform interactive animations, immediate calculations, or other simple
tasks without having to send a user request back to the server.

Application Programming Interface (API)
An API is the specific method prescribed by a computer operating system or by an application program by which a programmer writing an application program can make requests of the operating system or another application.

Application Server
An application server is a server program in a computer in a distributed network that
provides the business logic for an application program.

Asynchronous
Asynchronous operation means that a process operates independently of other processes, whereas synchronous operation means that the process runs only as a result of some other process being completed or handing off operation.

BAPI
Business Application Programming Interface from SAP.
A standardized programming interface enabling external applications to access business processes and data in the SAP R/3 System. BAPIs are implemented as RFC-enabled function modules.

Common Client Interface (CCI)
The CCI provides the access from J2EE clients, such as enterprise beans, JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology, and servlets, to an underlying enterprise information system (EIS).

Connection Factory
A connection factory is the object a client uses to create a connection with a provider. A connection factory encapsulates a set of connection configuration parameters that has been defined by an administrator.

Connection Pool
A group of connections established and maintained between an adapter and the EIS. The number of connections varies with demand, operating between a pre-defined minimum and maximum, with an optimum level also chosen during configuration of the pool.

Connector
A standard extension mechanism for containers to provide connectivity to EISs. A connector is specific to an EIS and consists of a resource adapter and application development tools for EIS connectivity. The resource adapter is plugged in to a container through its support for system level contracts defined in the connector architecture.

Connector Architecture
An architecture for integration of J2EE servers with EISs. There are two parts to this architecture: a EIS vendor-provided resource adapter and a J2EE server that allows this resource adapter to plug in. This architecture defines a set of contracts that a resource adapter has to support to plug in to a J2EE server, for example, transactions, security, and resource management.

Container-managed transaction
When an EJB container defines the boundaries of a transaction. An entity bean must use container-managed transactions.

Dynamic Link Library (DLL)
A collection of small programs, any of which can be called when needed by a larger program that is running on the computer.

Design Time
The phase in which a system is being designed and configured (before the system is used) and information is added to the system.

Deployment Descriptor
An XML file provided with each module and application that describes how they should be deployed. The deployment descriptor directs a deployment tool to deploy a module or application with specific container options and describes specific configuration requirements that a deployer must resolve.

Distributed Application
An application made up of distinct components running in separate runtime environments, usually on different platforms connected through a network. Typical distributed applications are two-tier (client/server), three-tier (client/middleware/server), and n-tier (client/multiple middleware/multiple servers).

Enterprise Bean
A component that implements a business task or business entity; either an entity beans or a session bean.

Enterprise Information System (EIS)
The applications that comprise an enterprise''s existing system for handling company-wide information. These applications provide an information infrastructure for an enterprise. An EIS offers a well defined set of services to its clients. These services are exposed to clients as local and/or remote interfaces. Examples of EISs include: an ERP system, a mainframe transaction processing system, and a legacy database system.

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)
A component architecture for the development and deployment of object-oriented, distributed, enterprise-level applications. Applications written using the Enterprise JavaBeans architecture are scalable, transactional, and multi-user and secure.

Entity bean
An enterprise bean that represents persistent data maintained in a database. An entity bean can manage its own persistence or it can delegate this function to its container. An entity bean is identified by a primary key. If the container in which an entity bean is hosted crashes, the entity bean, its primary key, and any remote references survive the crash.

FTP
The basic Internet File Transfer Protocol. FTP, which is based on TCP/IP, enables the fetching and storing of files between hosts on the Internet. See also TCP/IP.

GUI
Graphical User Interface. Refers to the techniques involved in using graphics, along with a keyboard and a mouse, to provide an easy-to-use interface to some program.

HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol. The Internet protocol, based on TCP/IP, used to fetch hypertext objects from remote hosts.

HTTPS
HyperText Transfer Protocol layered over the SSL protocol.

IIOP
Internet Inter-ORB Protocol. A protocol used for communication between CORBA object request brokers.

Interface
A Java programming language keyword used to define a collection of method definitions and constant values. It can later be implemented by classes that define this interface with the "implements" keyword.

ISV
An ISV is an Independent Software Vendor.

Java Transaction Service (JTS)
Specifies the implementation of a transaction manager which supports JTA and implements the Java mapping of the OMG Object Transaction Service (OTS) 1.1 specification at the level below the API.

Java Runtime Environment (JRE)
A subset of the Java Development Kit (JDK) for end-users and developers who want to redistribute the runtime environment alone. The Java runtime environment consists of the JavaTM virtual machine1, the Java core classes, and supporting files.

JavaServer Pages (JSP)
An extensible web technology that uses template data, custom elements, scripting languages, and server-side Java objects to return dynamic content to a client. Typically the template data is HTML or XML elements, and in many cases the client is a web browser.

Java APIs for XML Processing (JAXP)
Enables applications to parse and transform XML documents using an API that is independent of a particular XML processor implementation. JAXP also provides a plugability feature which enables applications to easily switch between particular XML processor implementations.

Java APIs for XML Registries (JAXR)
A uniform and standard Java API for accessing different kinds of XML Registries (such as UDDI and ebXML registries). XML registries are an enabling infrastructure for building, deployment, and discovery of web services.

Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
Provides a binding compiler and a runtime framework to support a two-way mapping between XML documents and Java objects. The binding compiler translates W3C XML Schema into one or more Java classes without requiring the developer to write complex parsing code.

JDBC
Java Database Connectivity. An industry standard for database-independent connectivity between the Java platform and a wide range of databases. The JDBC interface provides a call-level API for SQL-based database access.

Just-in-time (JIT) Compiler
A compiler that converts all of the bytecode into native machine code just as a Java program is run. This results in run-time speed improvements over code that is interpreted by a Java virtual machine.

Metadata
Metadata is high-level data that describes how the lower-level data is formatted.

ONE
The Open Net Environment (ONE), originated by Sun Microsystems and backed by major industry participants, describes a comprehensive architecture for the creation, assembly and deployment of web services. ONE is both platform-independent and based entirely on open standards. Sun ONE refers to a particular implementation of this architecture by Sun and iPlanet.

Queues
Queues manage messages for a point-to-point messaging model.

Remote Function Calls (RFC)
Remote Function Calls are SAP specific communication protocols designed to allow communication between SAP R/3 systems, and
provide the interface for communication between external non SAP R/3 systems and SAP R/3 systems.

Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
Executing what looks like a normal procedure call (or method invocation) by sending network packets to some remote host.

Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
A protocol that allows communication between a Web browser and a server to be encrypted for privacy.

Service Pack
Regular bundled delivery of hot fixes and new funtationality aimed at maximising customer experience and lifetime value.

Servlet
A Java program that extends the functionality of a Web server, generating dynamic content and interacting with Web clients using a request-response paradigm.

Servlet container
A container that provides the network services over which requests and responses are sent, decodes requests, and formats responses. All servlet containers must support HTTP as a protocol for requests and responses, but may also support additional request-response protocols such as HTTPS.

Session bean
An enterprise bean that is created by a client and that usually exists only for the duration of a single client/server session. A session bean performs operations, such as calculations or accessing a database, for the client. While a session bean may be transactional, it is not recoverable should a system crash occur. Session bean objects can be either stateless or they can maintain conversational state across methods and transactions. If they do maintain state, then the EJB container manages this state if the object must be removed from memory. However, the session bean object itself must manage its own persistent data.

SOAP
The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) uses a combination of XML-based data structuring and the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to define a standardized method for invoking methods in objects distributed in diverse operating environments across the Internet.

SQL
Structured Query Language. The standardized relational database language for defining database objects and manipulating data.

UDDI
The Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI) project provides a global, public, XML-based, online business registry where businesses register and advertise their web services. UDDI defines an Internet version of the white and yellow pages in a telephone directory.

URL
Uniform Resource Locator. A standard for writing a text reference to an arbitrary piece of data in the WWW. A URL looks like "protocol://host/localinfo" where protocol specifies a protocol to use to fetch the object (like HTTP or FTP), host specifies the Internet name of the host on which to find it, and localinfo is a string (often a file name) passed to the protocol handler on the remote host.

Virtual machine
An abstract specification for a computing device that can be implemented in different ways, in software or hardware. You compile to the instruction set of a virtual machine much like you''d compile to the instruction set of a microprocessor. The Java virtual machine consists of a bytecode instruction set, a set of registers, a stack, a garbage-collected heap, and an area for storing methods.

Web server
Software that provides services to access the Internet, an intranet, or an extranet. A Web server hosts Web sites, provides support for HTTP and other protocols, and executes server-side programs (such as CGI scripts or servlets) that perform certain functions. In the J2EE architecture, a Web server provides services to a Web container. For example, a Web container typically relies on a Web server to provide HTTP message handling. The J2EE architecture assumes that a Web container is hosted by a Web server from the same vendor, so does not specify the contract between these two entities. A Web server may host one or more Web containers.

Web Services
Web Services are loosely coupled software components capable of collaborating with each other over multiple networks to deliver a specific result to an end user. In the process, they leverage an emerging group of standards that govern their description and interaction, including SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), UDDI (Universal Discovery and Description Initiative), XML (Extensible Markup Language), and WSDL (Web Services Description Language).

Websync
Regular cumulative delivery of hot fixes plus any new technical features ready for GA, new platforms/certs as appropriate/requested.

WSDL
The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is an XML language that is used to describe a web service and to specify how to communicate with the web service.

XML
Extensible Markup Language. A markup language that allows you to define the tags (markup) needed to identify the data and text in XML documents. J2EE deployment descriptors are expressed in XML.

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