Product Trials Store Community

Samples

Categories




Tutorials

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

glcics.htm This tutorial shows how to extend an existing CICS application to use Micro Focus’s Database Connectors(TM) for Microsoft® SQL Server. This enables your application to store and access information in a Microsoft SQL Server relational database management system (RDBMS). Aug 2009

General

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

adodemo.zip This program demonstrates how to use Microsoft ADO (ActiveX DataObjects). May 2002
animparm.zip Shows the use of animate from the command line when passing a command line parameter May 2002
asc2ebc.zip Convert ASCII Line Sequential file to EBCDIC Sequential file May 2002
ascvsebc.zip Program which shows if your program is compiled to use ASCII or EBCDIC data May 2002
btrvtest.zip Cobol program calling Btrieve May 2002
callstmt.zip Document and sample code which defines the COBOL CALL statement May 2002
cbllocatefile.zip The example program illustrates how to use the CBL_LOCATE_FILE call-by-name routine. May 2002
cbltrap.zip How to trap COBOL errors using CBL_ERR0R_PROC Jul 2002
cbnrndlf.zip This example illustrates how to format and use long file names with call-by-name routines. May 2002
cobolzip.zip This demo demonstrates how you can create a zip file or add to an existing zip file from a Cobol program. Jan 2003
Converting.zip The example program, "CONVERTING.cbl", illustrates how to use an "inspect ... converting" statement to translate EBCDIC numeric display values to equivalent ASCII numeric display values. Jan 2005
dirlist.zip Example of using X'91" function 69 to Scan a directory May 2002
DLLDisplays.zip Using display statements to track a COBOL programs activity has been pretty routine for as long as there have been programmers using the COBOL programming language. This example illustrates how you can use display statements in a COBOL DLL program. Jan 2005
envvar.zip Displays and changes the contents of an environment variable May 2002
ErrorLevel.zip This program displays a list of Run-time error numbers and ERRORLEVEL values. The displays are re-directed to a text file by the OutDD Compiler directive. Aug 2002
excelpage.zip This is an amended version of the Excel demo from Net Express.  It shows how you insert page breaks into an Excel spreadsheet from a COBOL program using OLE Automation. May 2002
extfhdemos.zip This demo demonstrate how the File Handler, EXTFH can be called directly. May 2002
fileopen.zip Demonstrates the use of the OpenDialog class from the COBOL GUI class library that shows a File Open Dialog Box and displays the file selected. May 2004
GetOSInfo.zip Returns information about the operating system environment via the library call CBL_GET_OS_INFO. This demo also demonstrate the usage of the Library Routine Type definitions and Call Prototypes. Net Express contains two copyfiles; one contains data items used by the library routines specified as type definitions, or TYPEDEFs, while the other contains call prototypes for the library routines. These can be used in your COBOL programs to enable the Compiler to validate all calls to these routines. Dec 2004
gtpgminf.zip CBL_GET_PROGRAM_INFO, Example #1: The Main program calls the Dll by name and then uses the call-by-name routine to recover the entry point names in the Dll. The results are displayed on the screen May 2002
intrfunc.zip Series of nested programs demonstrating the use of Cobol Intrinsic functions May 2002
mf_backdrops.zip “COBOL Rocks the World” optional Workspace backdrops for Net Express Mar 2004
MFE Preprocessor.zip This demo demonstrate how to use a customized pre-processor in MFE Feb 2006
mru.zip Shows the use of CBL_ALLOC_MEM, CBL_GET_SHMEM_PTR, CBL_PUT_SHMEM_PTR, CBL_EXEC_RUN_UNIT and CBL_FREE_MEM May 2002
ooword.zip Object COBOL calling Microsoft Word May 2002
pc_find_drives.zip Returns all valid drives on a PC May 2002
Query.zip How to compile from a command line, using the NoQuery Compiler directive to suppress the prompt for any missing copy files. May 2002
Quitter.zip This example illustrates how to use two related call-by-name routines CBL_EXIT_PROC and CBL_GET_EXIT_INFO. Aug 2002
Retrieve.zip This project illustrates how to use Byte-stream File Routines to access and traverse an indexed file and summarize the records in the file by record code. Jul 2002
screensize.zip This sample demonstrate how to control a character-based application screen size using two new tunables, Screen_Lines and Screen_Cols. May 2002
Scroll.zip This example illustrates how character mode screen data can be scrolled using call-by-number routine X"A7", functions 4 and 5. Aug 2002
sortdemo.zip Example of the COBOL SORT using 2 ways: A SORT with USING and GIVING and a SORT with an INPUT PROCEDURE and an OUTPUT procedure May 2002
Stripes.zip This example illustrates creation of an IdxFormat"8" indexed file with striping. Jul 2004
testoleexception.zip This example program demonstrates the use of Exception Handling when working within an OLE environment. Jul 2003
TextFileViewer.zip View is a 32bit, character mode, text file viewer. It can be created as a character mode or graphical executable. It uses cal-by-name routine x'AF' to initialize Adis and compiler directive FileType"14" to create a temporary, relative file. Nov 2002
Tools.zip This demo environment is used to demonstrate how to create/incorporate custom tools in the Net Express IDE. May 2004
trcback.zip CBL_GET_PROGRAM_INFO, Example #2: Trace Back the Call/Perform Stack May 2002
UPSIParmpass.zip This program demonstrates how to use the UPSI external switches and the accept parameters with Net Express. Nov 2002
UsingBtrieve.zip This example illustrates how to use COBOL syntax to create and access a Btrieve database. Dec 2002
Variants.zip This project demonstrates the use of an OLE Automation object that returns a variant. Nov 2002
versionno.zip Sample that demonstrates how to add a version label to an EXE May 2002
weekday.zip Using intrinsic functions to validate Gregorian dates and create a date such as "Monday, April, 09, 2001". May 2002
Winfonts.zip The Micro Focus Graphical, Shared Run-time, character mode application Fonts provide the means to obtain a large, nearly full screen window for character mode applications. Aug 2002
word97.zip OLE demo that calls Microsoft Word and does a find/replace May 2002



Printing

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

afteradvancing.zip "AfterAdvancing" creates a file using the "After Advancing" clause, that includes carriage return, line feed and form feed characters, unlike a program using "after positioning." The print program uses Byte-stream File Routines to read the report file, preserving the PC printer control characters, and providing control of the printer and font used to print the report. May 2002
afterpositioning.zip This example illustrates how to use a report file created by an OSVS Cobol program that prints using "after positioning" syntax May 2002
beforeadvancing.zip "BeforeAdvancing" creates a file using the "Before Advancing" clause that includes carriage return, line feed and form feed characters, (unlike a program using "after positioning".) The print program uses Byte-stream File Routines to read the report file, preserving the PC printer control characters, and providing control of the printer and font used to print the report. May 2002
DeviceCapabilities.zip This example illustrates how to use the DeviceCapabilities Win32 function to determine the number of copies a local printer is capable printing. It also illustrates how to create a "bridge" Dll for Winspool functions. Feb 2003
enumprnt.zip This program demonstrates how to use the Windows 32-bit API function EnumPrinters to obtain a list of available printers and their associated parameters. This demo will work on Win9X and Win NT/2000/XP Aug 2002
mainframeprint.zip This example illustrates the MAINFRAMEPRINT File Handler Configuration option. Mar 2004
printraw.zip This example program demonstrates how to use the Windows SDK Printing and Spooling functions to print a document which contains embedded printer ESC sequence codes. These codes can control various formatting features of the printer. May 2002
pcprintercalls.zip This set of samples meant as an introduction for the PC_PRINTER library calls May 2002
prntfile.zip Example of how to use the PC_PRINT_FILE Net Express call-by-name routine  May 2002
prntfont.zip This program will demonstrate how to allow a user to select a font and style for printing using the Windows SDK function ChooseFont in conjunction with the Net Express PC_PRINTER         routines. May 2002
prntinfo.zip This program demonstrates the use of the Net Express library routine PC_PRINTER_INFO to get the current configuration information for a specified open printer. It will return a         native device context handle, and other information that can be used to enhance the printing of a document by calling native WINAPI graphics functions directly. May 2002
prntrdsp.zip "Using thUsing the PC_PRINTER_INFO call-by-name routine to collect information about the printer and then print "RAW" data on the selected printer.e PC_PRINTER_INFO call-by-name routine to collect">Using thUsing the PC_PRINTER_INFO call-by-name routine to collect information about the printer and then print "RAW" data on the selected printer.e PC_PRINTER_INFO call-by-name routine to collect Aug 2008
prntrecs.zip This example program demonstrates the use of the Net Express call-by-name library routine PC_PRINTER_WRITE. It will read the line sequential file PRNTRECS.DAT and output the records one at a time to the default system printer.  This program also demonstrates the use of variable length line sequential files defined with the RECORD IS VARYING IN SIZE clause. May 2002
PrntTune.zip This example is meant to demonstrate how can an output file be redirected to the Win32 Print Spooler using the printer_redirection tunable. May 2002
resetdc.zip Illustrates how to use the Win32 Api ResetDC to adjust the page size for the printer May 2002



Win32 API

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

appnmbrs.zip Example of using an Index file to track multiple executions of the same program May 2002
attrib.zip This demo shows how to use the usage of the GetFileAttributes and SetFileAttributes APIs. This sample will set a file as Read-Only. May 2002
CheckLogin.zip This example demonstrates the use of the two Win32 API functions WNetGetUser in order to retrieve the name of the user who is currently logged on, and WNetAddConnection2 in order to verify a specified password against a network servers password file for the current user. Jul 2002
closebutton.zip Removing Close Button from the COBOL Text Window May 2002
cobini.zip This example program demonstrates how to use the Windows SDK functions to read and write to a system .INI file. These functions have been replaced by the Registry functions in         32-bit programs (see COBREG sample) but still exist to maintain compatibility with 16-bit programs.  This program will read the WIN.INI file looking for the following entry:         [NetExpressApp] NetExpressKey=  If it finds the entry it will display the value associated with NetExpressKey. If it does not find the entry it will go ahead and create it and then read it back and display the value associated with NetExpressKey. May 2002
cobreg.zip Accessing the Windows registry with COBOL and writing or reading information from the registry May 2002
comport.zip Reading data from the COM port using WIN 32 APIs/Sending data to the COM port using WIN 32 APIs May 2002
createp.zip Using WIN 32 Api to create a new process on cobol Jun 2002
CreateShortcut.zip This demo will demonstrate how to create and set the properties of a shortcut using the CreateShortcut Nov 2004
enumdemo.zip This demo shows how you can use the EnumWindows in a Net Express Application. May 2002
findfirstnext.zip This example illustrates how to use Win32 Api functions to search a directory. File and directory attributes are interpreted and displayed. May 2002
findexe.zip This example program demonstrates how to find the executable program name which is associated with a particular file extension and then use it to open the specified file. It uses the two Win32 API functions FindExecutable and CreateProcess May 2002
freediskspace.zip Find Free Disk Space on a Drive using Windows API calls May 2002
getdirectory.zip "This program demonstrates the use of Win32 API calls SHBrowseForFolder and SHGetPathFromIDList to display a dialog box that will allow the user to select a directory.">This program demonstrates the use of Win32 API calls SHBrowseForFolder and SHGetPathFromIDList to display a dialog box that will allow the user to select a directory. May 2002
getdisk.zip This example demonstrates the use of the two Win32 API functions GetVolumeInformation and GetDiskFreeSpaceEx in order to retrieve certain information about a specified disk drive. May 2002
geterror.zip This example demonstrates the use of the Win32 SDK function FormatMessage to receive an error message text associated with a specified error number. Normally this would be used in conjunction with the GetLastError function in order to receive the error message text associated with an error returned by the last Win32 SDK function call.  This example will simply display the error message text for the first 20 system errors numbered 0 through 19.  This example also demonstrates the use of COBOL typedefs. May 2002
getnuser.zip Using WIN 32 Api to get the current user logged on the network using the win 32 api in cobol May 2002
getuser.zip Using WIN 32 Api to get the current user logged using the win 32 api in Cobol May 2002
getver.zip This program demonstrates how to use the Windows 32-bit API functions to get the Windows version information from a file. May 2002
gst.zip Illustrates GetSystemTime and GetLocalTime. It also uses CBL_ALLOC_MEM and CBL_FREE_MEM to get and free memory for the SYSTEMTIME structure and passes the pointer to the Api calls by value rather than by reference.  May 2002
getsystemmetrics.zip GetSystemMetrics is an Api that can be used to collect details from Windows. In this example it is collecting the resolution currently in use. May 2002
FTPprogram.zip This demo uses the Windows Internet (WinINet) application  programming interface (API) to interact with FTP protocols to access Internet resources. Jan 2007
longname.zip Returning a short filename from a long file name under cobol using the WIN 32 APIs May 2002
MessageBox.zip This example illustrates how to use the Windows MessageBox Api to display information for an application user. Four different techniques are described. Eight significant features are demonstrated, call-convention, COBOL Call Prototypes, Constant Compiler directive, Conditional Compilation, Level 78 items, z'literal', procedure-pointer items, and set ... to entry ... statements. May 2002
netconnect.zip This program demonstrates how to use the Windows 32-bit Network API functions to obtain a list of available network resources and their associated parameters. It also demonstrates how to map to a network drive and printer from within COBOL. May 2002
odbcinfo.zip This example demonstrates the use of the Win32 SDK ODBC functions to get information about installed ODBC drivers. May 2002
play32.zip How to Play a WAV file under 32bit windows using the WIN API's. APIs used are sndPlaySound (old api) and PlaySound (Current API) Jan 2005
Recycledel.zip This sample program will demonstrate how to use the Windows SHFileOperation API in order to send a file to the Recycle Bin when it is deleted. May 2004
setconsoletitle.zip "The SetConsoleTitle Api can be used in a Console application (Character) to change what is displayed by Windows in the Windows "Title Bar."">The SetConsoleTitle Api can be used in a Console application (Character) to change what is displayed by Windows in the Windows "Title Bar." May 2002
setwindowtext.zip The SetWindowText Api can be used in a "Quick Win" or Windows application to change what is displayed by Windows in the Windows "Title Bar." In a Graphical Windows program, as opposed to a character ("Quick Win") program, you would get your Window handle from your CreateWindow Api call rather than the PC_WIN_HANDLE call-by-name routine. May 2002
shellex.zip Using the WIN 32 API ShellExecuteEx to open an HTML document May 2002
showos.zip Show Win32 Platform, Version number, Build number using WIN 32 APIs May 2002
winexec.zip Illustrates using Windows API 'Winexec' to start Notepad May 2002
wordsetup.zip This program demonstrates the use of OLE Automation to send messages to objects in another application. This example uses Microsoft Word. May 2002



Web Development

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

actxsamp.zip Sample page whichs shows how to: add items to the ActiveX list box, add items to the ActiveX selection box, add tabs to the ActiveX tab strip control, and show/hide controls when a tab change is made on the tab strip control  May 2002
anchors.zip Sample project which highlights the use of hyperlinks in Net Express May 2002
asptocobol.zip Example of an Active Server Page (ASP) calling a COBOL COM object May 2002
cgiraw.zip Passing arguments from a URL May 2002
cobolval.zip This is a Web demo which demonstrates the use of COBOL to validate FORM input fields and uses JavaScript to display an error message + place focus on the filed in error. May 2002
disablefield.zip How to disable an html text input field programmatically through the CGI program and JavaScript code Sep 2002
ftpdemo.zip This example demonstrates how to create a link to an FTP site and also how to create an E-mail link from an HTML form designed with Form Designer. The input form is from an imaginary company and allows you to connect to an FTP site which is actually the        Microsoft ftp site at Microsoft.com.  The HTML document ftplinks.htm will be displayed in your browser.  When the exit submit button is pressed, the CGI program FTP0501.EXE    will be run which will display the output form ftplinks-out.htm.  This form simply outputs a "Thank You" message to the user and offers a link back to the main page. May 2002
htmlfieldattribute.zip How to alter an HTML entry field attribute May 2002
JS-SubmitOnce.zip This demo shows how to prevent user from submitting the form more than once using JavaScript. Dec 2002
links.zip This demo shows how you can use a HTML Link (A HREF) to call a COBOL CGI passing parameters May 2002
NoRightClick.zip How to prevent users from using the mouse right-click to go "back" to previous page for example Sep 2002
touppercase.zip Sample of how to use UPPER CASE FUNCTION two different ways May 2002
webdemo.zip Shows the use of drop down menus, submit, check marks, radio buttons, and how to insert an input image. It also is an asymmetric application so when you hit the submit button, another page is returned May 2002
xml.zip A simple application which shows NetExpress working with XML May 2002
xmlparse.zip Demo of how to parse XML May 2002



Dialog System

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

bitmapdemo.zip This demo shows you how can you place a bitmap as a background on your windows. This demo uses bitmaps of 16 colours, 256 colours and 24 bits colours. Nov 2003
buttons.zip This Dialog System example illustrates how to get a button press returned to the COBOL program. Nov 2002
buttontext.zip Multiple Line Text in Dialog Push Buttions using Windows Styles. May 2002
ControlPanel.zip This demo shows how you can create a Windows control panel application using Net Express. May 2002
DisableTabs.zip This example illustrates how to turn controls on tab pages off (disable-object). You cannot disable a tab page. You can, however, disable the controls on a tab page. Dec 2002
DSBlink.zip This demo shows how to make a Dialog System entry field blink by alternating the background color of the field. Nov 2004
DSColor.zip The Dialog System "Color Selection" dialog box for setting colors of controls has a very limited selection of colors to choose from. To get a more varied selection of color choices, you will have to make use of the Micro Focus GUI Class Library. This means that you will have to add extra Dialog code for each control that you want to color by way of the class library. Nov 2004
DSCSRPOS.zip This demo shows how to place the cursor at the end of a Dialog System entry field. Oct 2002
DSSplash.zip This demo shows how to create a splash screen window for your Dialog System application. Nov 2004
dserrhan.zip Demonstrating the usage of the Dialog System Error Message File Handler, DSERRHAN, as described in the Dialog System User Guide Chapter 15 section 15.2 and 15.21 May 2002
dsmouseover.zip Shows how to use the MOUSE-OVER event when NLS is present May 2002
dsnls.zip NLS DS demonstration Jul 2003
dspaint.zip Using the paint method for a window created by Dialog System May 2002
gsp4c12s.zip Revised Net Express Getting Started Part 4 Chapter 12 Creating a Windows GUI Application with Dialog System Nov 2002
guichar.zip This application demonstrates a method of using both Dialog System GUI screensets and character based console screens within the same application. Jul 2003
HTMLHelpDemo.zip This demo demonstrate how to invoke some of the basics functions of Microsoft HTML Help via API calls. Nov 2003
itmunsel.zip How to do an "ITEM-UNSELECTED" in a Dialog System list box May 2002
Layered.zip The sample is used to demonstrate how create transparent Dialog Boxes in Dialog System Dec 2003
menuitemicondemo.zip How to create Icon´s in a Dialog System Pulldown-Menu May 2002
netxmapi.zip Dialog System/Cobol application making MAPI calls to interface to MSExchange May 2002
setparent.zip This demo shows how you can use the SetParent Windows API to dynamically change the parent of a Dialog Window. May 2002
sizedlg.zip How to Get, Set and Redraw a Dialog Window using Win APIs May 2002
SwapFocus.zip This demo shows how to swap the focus from a Dialog System window to a COBOL text window. Oct 2002
SaveWinSize.zip This demo shows the use of the Dialog System extension DSMOVSZ to query and restore the window's position and size. Mar 2004
TrapF10F3.zip This sample show how to trap Function Keys events, F3 & F10 in this sample, before Windows does. This is achieved by sub-classing the object (e.g. entry field) where the F10 or F3 should be intercepted. ***This demo can also be used to trap any keys, not only Function keys. Nov 2004
UsingDSDir.zip This example illustrates how to use dsdir.obj/.gnt in your COBOL Dialog System application. Buttons defined within the File menu are used to collect and return Nov 2002
validation.zip Contains a number of Dialog System screensets togther with COBOL programs to illustrate how to apply DATA VALIDATION May 2002
VisualStyleDemo.zip The sample demonstrates how to create a DialogSystem screenset, which uses the Themed Controls of the XP Visual Style. Dec 2005



Mixed Language

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

c-call-cobol.zip This program demonstrates how to create a Windows 32-bit .DLL from a COBOL program which can be called by a Microsoft Visual C program.  This .DLL will be loaded by the C executable CALLER.EXE. The entry points will be made public and then GETSTR1 will be         called to get the first string to display and GETSTR2 will be called to get the second string to display. Both of these strings will then be output in the Window which is created and maintained by CALLER.EXE.  This program was tested using Microsoft Visual C/C++ V6.0. May 2002
cbl2vbx.zip The project file CBL2VBX.APP is used to demonstrate how to call a VB ActiveX control from a Cobol program that uses Dialog System for GUI interface. It accepts an amount (Canadian Dollar) to calculate taxes and converts the total amount in US Dollar May 2002
cncbl32b.zip 'C' and Cobol programs calling one another May 2002
cncblfh.zip This is a "Mixed Language" 'C' and COBOL project. It was created using NetExpress version 3.1 and Microsoft Visual Studio version 4. It has been tested with Microsoft Visual Studio C/C++ version 6. The project illustrates how you can incorporate editing, compiling and building 'C' source programs together with COBOL source programs within a common project May 2002
delphi.zip Demo of Inprise Delphi calling a Net Express COBOL DLL May 2002
guic-cobdll.zip A graphical C Interface calling cobol entry points with different formats Integer, Float, Double, Short, String..  May 2002
JavaSockets.zip This demo shows how you can communicate to a Java Server program using TCPIP. Nov 2003
javatocob.zip Example of how the Java Native Interface can be used to call a Net Express COBOL DLL. Apr 2004
mqexedll.zip Example of Net Express working with MQSeries May 2002
vb-call-cobol.zip This example demonstrates how to create Windows 32-bit .DLLs from a COBOL program which can be called by a Microsoft Visual Basic program. It also demonstrates how and when to use static and dynamic call-conventions and how to link .DLLs to the Net Express file handler MFFH.OBJ. May 2002

SQL

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

adosql.zip Sample using ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) to access SQL databases May 2002
conn2db.zip How to have 2 connections for the database and switch between them May 2002
hold.zip Using the WITH HOLD Clause for the Declare Cursor in Net Express with the ODBC Interface May 2002



Utilities

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

CoreDump.zip This demo how to generate and animate a dump file using either the CBLCORE utility or the core_on_error runtime tunable. Oct 2004
doskey.zip Keyboard utility program that will test the old and new keyboard functions. (If the new functions do not work and you have a 16-bit character based applications you can use the COBSW +K1) May 2002
faultfind.zip This demo demonstrate how to use the FAULTFINDER production debugging utility. FaultFinder is an aid to debugging production applications. May 2002
HowtosubmitaNetExpressSupportProblem.zip This technical bulletin is meant as reference material in helping you provide us the necessary information required before contacting the Micro Focus SupportLine group. Nov 2002
kbdtest.zip Keyboard utility program that will return the keycode/scancode that the bios will return when pressing a key May 2002
libman.zip Makes use of the Websync Library Manager Addpack. It has most of the functionality of the old function key version of the library manager, but with a Windows interface (Dialog System). May 2002
MFSupportInfo.zip Utility program to gather up workstation and products information Feb 2006
printercheck.zip Utility, written in C, which allows you to test your printer(independent of COBOL). You will need to modify the C code, so a C compiler is required to use it. Oct 2002
profiler.zip This demo demonstrate how to use the PROFILER utility. Oct 2002
TestCover.zip This sample demonstrates how to use the TestCover compiler directive and support tools. Mar 2004



.Net

Back to Top

Download Name

Description

Last Updated

CallUnmanagedDll.zip Demonstrates the use of the .NET Platform Invoke functionality in order to use the COBOL CALL statement to call entry points and functions within unmanaged Windows dynamic Link Libraries created with Net Express 4.0, Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6.0 and also to call Windows system API functions. This program also demonstrates the use of the new .NET COBOL structured exception handling syntax to catch run-time exceptions and also shows how to create and use a user-defined exception class. Jun 2004
CobolanddotNetprojects.zip This zip files contains the reviewed demos that are provided with the Cobol and .NET - Using Micro Focus Net Express with .NET from Will Price. These revised demos are made to work with Net Express v4.0 and Net Express with .NET including the installation of WrapPack ALL05N40. Sep 2005
VBnet2CBL.zip This demo shows how to write a VB.NET program to interact with and pass parameters to an unmanaged (procedural) Jun 2004